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Dangerous Goods

Introduction
RegulationsThe Carriage of dangerous goods and marine pollutants in sea-going ships is respectively regulated in the International Convention for the Safety of the Life at Sea (SOLAS) and the International Convention for the Prevention of pollution from Ships (MARPOL).
Relevant parts of both SOLAS and MARPOL have been worked out in great detail and are included in the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code, thus making this Code the legal instrument for maritime transport of dangerous goods and marine pollutants.


Documents
The shipper of dangerous goods should provide a dangerous goods declaration embodying the relevant details listed in section 9 of the general introduction to the IMDG Code and the original or a copy should be placed aboard the ship. Without such a declaration the dangerous goods shall not be accepted for shipments.

Those responsible for the packing of dangerous goods into a freight container or vehicle should provide a signed dangerous goods container or vehicle packing certificate, stating that the provisions of paragraph 5.4 of the IMDG Code have been met, and the original or a copy should be handed over to the vessel operator. Without such certification the container or vehicle shall not be accepted for shipment. A Container packing certificate is not required for portable tanks.

The documents referred to in 1 and 2 above may be combined into 1 form!
Classification of dangerous goods
For all modes of transport (sea, air, rail, road and inland waterways) the classification (grouping) of dangerous goods, by type of risk involved, has been drawn up by the UNITED NATIONS Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (UN). Based on this framework of grouping and for the purpose of carriage by sea, IMO Classes comprise the following, which are further subdivided as indicated: Dangerous goods, marine pollutants and material hazardous only in Bulk (MHB)

IMO Class Details

Labels

Class

Substances

Examples / UN No

1.1

Substances & Articles which have a mass explosion hazard UN 0076
Dinitrophenol 1.1D

1.2

Substances & Articles which have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard UN 0328
Cartridges for weapons, inert projectile 1.2C

1.3

Substances & Articles which have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard or both, but not a mass explosion hazard.

UN 0247 Ammunition, incendiary 1.3J

1.4

Substances & Articles which present no significant hazard

UN 0337 Fireworks 1.4S Pyrotechnic articles designed for entertainment)

1.5

UN 0337 Fireworks 1.4S (Pyrotechnic articles designed for entertainment) UN 0337 Fireworks 1.4S (Pyrotechnic articles designed for entertainment)

1.6

Extremely insensitive articles which do not have a mass explosion hazard. UN 0486 Articles, explosive, extremely insensitive 1.6N

2.1

Flammable gases UN 1001 Acetylene, dissolved Heating will cause a pressure rise with risk of bursting, explosion and fire.

2.2

Non-flammable, non-toxic gases UN 1066 Nitrogen, compressed Heating will cause a pressure rise with the risk of bursting.

2.3

Toxic gasses UN1017 Chlorine Heating will cause a pressure rise with risk of bursting and toxic

3.1
3.2
3.3

Flammable liquids, division into groups according to flashpoint from -18° to +61° C.

3.1 1090 Acetone Flp. = .20°C
3.2 1294 Toluene Flp. = +7°C
3.3 1263 Paint Flp. = +32°C
Risk of fire and explosion by escape from gases

4.1

Flammable Solids UN 1338 Phosphorus, Red risk of fire

4.2

Spontaneously combustible UN1384 Sodium Dithionite Risk of fire. React violently in contact with water

4.3

Dangerous when wet

UN1402 Calcium carbide. React violently in contact with water

5.1

Oxidizing substances UN 1456 Calcium Permanganate. Substances promote combustion

5.2

Organic peroxides

UN3106 Organic peroxide, Type D, solid Dibenzoyl Peroxide, Risk of explosion and fire ; protection for intensive warming, shock and friction.

6.1

Toxic substances UN1547 Aniline. Toxic if swallowed, by skin contact or by inhalation

6.2

Infectious substances

UN3291 Clinical waste, unspecified, high community risk are micro organisms that cause severe human or animal disease

7

Radioactive materials, cat. I UN2981 Uranyl Nitrate, solid Schedule 5

7

Radioactive materials, cat. II UN 2976 Thorium Nitrate, solid Schedule 6

7


Radioactive materials, cat. III
UN2979 Uranium Metal, pyrophoric Schedule 10

8

Corrosives UN 1779 Formic Acid. Contact with a relatively small quantity of water creates violent reaction and other dangerous substances

9

Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles UN 2211 Polymeric Beads, expandable; Risk of fire. Inhalation of harmful substances. In risk of fire formation of extreme toxic or water pollutant

Marine Pollutant , MP Marine pollutants are regulated of the requirements by IMO. The marine pollutant mark should be placed adjacent of the dangerous goods label

Fumigation warning sign Marking of units which are carried under fumigation. Warning signs are fitted on the container door. Do not enter this cargo unit

IMO Class

Description
Class 1 Explosives
1.1 Substances and articles which have a mass explosion hazard.
1.2 Substances and articles which have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard.
1.3 Substances and articles which have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard or both, but not a mass explosion hazard.
1.4 Substances and articles which present no significant hazard.
1.5 Very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard.
1.6 Extremely insensitive articles which do not have a mass explosion hazard.
Class 2 Gases: Compressed, Liquefied or Dissolved under Pressure
2.1 Flammable gases
2.2 Non-Flammable gases
2.3 Toxic gases
Class 3 Flammable Liquids
3.1 Low flash-point group of liquids (flash-point below -18?C.)
3.2 Intermediate flash-point group of liquids (flash-point of -18?C. up to but not incl. +23?C.)
3.3 High flash-point group of liquids (flash-point of +23?C. up to and incl. +61?C.)
Class 4 Flammable Solids or Substances
4.1 Flammable solids
4.2 Substances liable to spontaneous combustion
4.3 Substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases.
Class 5 Oxidizing Substances (agents) and Organic Peroxides
5.1 Oxidizing substances (agents) by yielding oxygen increase the risk and intensity of fire
5.2 Organic peroxides - most will burn rapidly and are sensitive to impact or friction
Class 6 Toxic and infectious Substances
6.1 Toxic substances
6.2 Infectious substances
Class 7 Radioactive Substances
Class 8 Corrosives
Class 9 Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles *
MHB Materials hazardous only in bulk **

*

Marine pollutants which are not of an otherwise dangerous nature are listed in class 9

**

The regulations for materials hazardous only in bulk are not applicable to these materials when they are carried in closed freight containers, however, many precautions may have to be observed

[h2]Segregation Table[/h2] The table on the next page shows the general requirements for segregation between the various classes of dangerous goods. Since the properties of substances or articles within each class may vary greatly, the individual schedules should always be consulted for particular requirements for segregation as these take precedence over the general requirements! Segregation should also take account of a single subsidiary risk table

Class 1.1
1.2
1.5
1.3
1.6
1.4 2.1 2.2 2.3 3 4.1 4.2 4.3 5.1 5.2 6.1 6.2 7 8 9
Explosives 1.1,1.2,1.5
* * * 4 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 4 X
Explosives 1.3, 1.6
* * * 4 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 X
Explosives 1.4
* * * 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 X 4 2 2 X
Flammable gases 2.1
4 4 2 X X X 2 1 2 X 2 2 X 4 2 1 X
Non-toxic, non-flammable gases 2.2
2 2 1 X X X 1 X 1 X X 1 X 2 1 X X
Toxic gases 2.3
2 2 1 X X X 2 X 2 X X 2 X 2 1 X X
Flammable liquids 3
4 4 2 2 1 2 X X 2 1 2 2 X 3 2 X X
Flammable solids**) 4.1
4 3 2 1 X X X X 1 X 1 2 X 3 2 1 X
Substances liable to spontaneous combustion 4.2
4 3 2 2 1 2 2 1 X 1 2 2 1 3 2 1 X
Substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases 4.3
4 4 2 X X X 1 X 1 X 2 2 X 2 2 1 X
Oxidizing substances (agents) 5.1
4 4 2 2 X X 2 1 2 2 X 2 1 3 1 2 X
Organic peroxides 5.2
4 4 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 X 1 3 2 2 X
Toxic substances 6.1
2 2 X X X X X X 1 X 1 1 X 1 X X X
Infectious substances 6.2
4 4 4 4 2 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 1 X 3 3 X
Radioactive materials 7
2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 X 3 X 2 X
Corrosives 8
4 2 2 1 X X X 1 1 1 2 2 X 3 2 X X
Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles 9
X X X X X X X X X X X/td> X X X X X X
Numbers and symbols relate to the following terms as defined in this section:
1 1 - "Away from"
2 2 - "Separated from"
3 3 - "Separated by a complete compartment or hold from"
4 4 - "Separated longitudinally by an intervening complete compartment or hold from"
X X - The segregation, if any, is shown in individual schedules
* - See subsection 6.2 of the introduction to class 1 for segregation within class 1.
**- Including self-reactive and related substances and desensitized explosives.